this is where all known calcs for Kinetic Energy measurements can be found.

## Blast Wave

this section is for feats that creates blast waves, using G.I. Taylor’s Ideal blast wave formula.

E = (ρ/t^2)*(r/c)^5

- C = dimensionless constant (1-1.1)

- r - radius m

- ρ = 1.225 kg/m^3 (Density of Air)

- t = seconds (The time needed for the shockwave to travel the radius.)

## Cloud Splitting

To find the Energy to split clouds for any feat, we use the following to find the factors for the equation.

- Height of the Clouds size (an Cumulonimbus cloud is 12000 meters high)
- the Density of the clouds. (average density is 1.003 Kg/m^3)
- the radius (Width of a Cloud/2)
- the Time. (estimate the time needed to take to do this via time frames)

Once you find that info, use the following equation to find the kinetic energy:

- KE=0.5*Density*Height*3.14*(Radius^4)*(Time^2)
- After that, divide it by two to get the end result.

Here are some sources to better find the measurements you need.

## Force via Angular Degree

This is to find the force of something that flies up to a certain degree, to find that you need for find a few things.

- Distance between point A to B (meters)
- Angle in degrees.
- initial velocity (Link in m/s)
- Weight (kg)
- Kinetic energy (kg*m/s^2*.5)
- Momentum (kg*m/s)
- Force (momentum / m/s)

NOTE: here is the link for the Punch that lasts less than 60ms.

## Fluid Pressure and Cross Section

This part is where we will find the wind pressure of a feat that would be applied for another Kinetic Energy calculation method, first we would need to use the Bernoulli's principle, which states that the minimum pressure decrease required to move an object is given by the formula:

http://www.endmemo.com/physics/bernoulli.php

**P _{1} + 0.5 * ρ * v_{1}^{2} + h_{1}ρg = P_{2} + 0.5 * ρ * v_{2}^{2} + h_{2}ρg**

What I want to find here is the value of 'V', for this we have that, the pressure is always greater than the mass of the object moved.

Cross-sectional area of cylinder, you can use this section to find the equation for various shapes.

## Kinetic Energy

This part is to talk about how to find the kinetic energy of a feat when it comes to how much force is pushed onto an object, here is the equation below.

This can be used for objects crashing into other objects, punches, kicks, etc..

**KE=1/2*m*v^2**

The units of the equation are as followed

- KE = Kinetic Energy
- m = mass (kg)
- v = velocity (m/s)

When Solved, to convert the KE to Joules is as follows (1J = 1kg m^2/s^2)

- Find the wait of any object in question by grams (g), convert it to kilograms (kg) 1 kg = 1000 g
- Find velocity which is speed = distance/time (m/s)
- Then plug all those into the formula above.

This calculator is good for standard measurements such as weapons, guns, etc..

NOTE: This can be used for **Tsunami, Sandstorm, Tornado, Volcanic Eruptions** Feats as well

- Also note that Lava has a density of 3100 kg/m^3.
- Fire density is .3 kg/m^3.

### Other Units for Conversion

In this section we will be talking about how to convert other sets of units such as Pressure to Kinetic Energy in a unique way. For this we will be using Pascals.

Sample Ivan Drago Feat.

- Force=Pressure(Pa)*Surface Area(cm^2)

- F=N
- Then find the Distance between impactor and the target (cm)
- Then find time which is the square root (2) *Distance*Mass/Force
- then find velocity (m/s) which is Force*Time/Mass
- after that, multply the mass with the velocity
- Finally add the Velocity and Mass of hand to the KE formula at the beginning to get results.

## Meteor

This is to calculate the meteor impact that is or would have happened to find the stat for DC.

This involved the following factors:

- Speed (over 11 km/s if in space, lower if from the atmosphere of the planet)
- Size
- Density of Projectile (average density of the meteor is 3500 kg/m^3)
- Density of Target
- Location of Impact
- TimeFrame

Optional (though not necessary)

- Trajectory
- Distance

You can use the following for reference or calculator simplification.

- http://www.chicxulubcrater.org/Chicxulub-Facts.html
- http://simulator.down2earth.eu/planet.html?lang=en-US
- http://www.convertalot.com/asteroid_impact_calculator.html

Or just go with the simple equation of:

- KE=0.5*Mass*Speed^2

NOTE: The Hemisphere usage without seeing it should be to multiply the diameter of the crater by **.13** to get the depth.

- Here is the calc for finding the energy from the crater.

## Relativity

This is the page that talks about calculating relativistic mass.

### Explanation

This calculation is to talk about the energy in an object that moves at a certain velocity, relativistic speed is when an object that accelerates at or near the speed of light.

### Method 1

This link here a method to find the energy of relativistic mass.

- m = relativistic mass (1.2e30 kg = to .6 solar mass)
- m0 = rest mass (Targeted object's mass, ex 5kg)
- v = m's velocity (under speed of light "99,792,000 m/s")
- c = constant vacuum of speed of light. (300,000,000 m/s, or near SoL 299792458.044 m/s)

The value for velocity changes, this one is from plugging in the values to the 2.4e29 * √ (1 - v² / 300000000^2) but solved in a different manner.

### Method 2

Another method is finding the kinetic energy which is this:

KE = *E* - *Eo*

- m{rel} = γ*m^o

- m{re}/m^o = γ
- (γ-1)*mc^2
- 2.4*10^29 ratio, which is the Lorentz factor γ
- m is rest mass, ex. 5 kg
- c is constant vacuum of light speed

### Links

### References

Since mass is a factor in this equation and there are feats that involves punches and kicks, this link here . a human that weighs around **150lb**, an arm would be around **~5.3%** of their weight, while a leg is **17.5%** of the weight. a hand weighs around .59% of the person's weight, a foot is around **1.45%**, and a human head is **7.3%** of the person's weight.

## Rotational Kinetic Energy

This calc is for finding the energy in the rotation of an object, to do that you will need to find several steps and values to make that happen.

First you need to find the moment of inertia which is .5 * mass(kg)*radius(meters)^2

Next you need to find the angular velocity

Which would be this for Linear Velocity (distance time and speed between two points)

- Distance(meters)/Speed(m/s)=Time(seconds)

Next you need to find the angle of which the object rotates, (Ex. An object that rotates 360 degrees would be 2pi radians.

Next you need to do this (pi*2)/Time=angular velocity

Now with all that you can find the Rotational Kinetic Energy which is .5*Moment of Inertia*Angular Velocity^2 = which would then give you the final result in joules.

Here is the Rotational Energy Calculator:

### Mass Moment of Inertia

MMoI is the solid measures the solid's ability to resist changes in rotational speed about a specific axis. The larger the Mass Moment of Inertia the smaller the angular acceleration about that axis for a given torque. However, each calculation is different depending on the shape of the object.

Here is a calculator for finding the Mass Moment of Inertia:

### AV & Frequency

Angular Velocity is the speed of which a point of an object rotates relative to another point, it's SI base unit is = sec^{−1} and it's common symbol is ω.

Angular Velocity (sec^{−1}) is equal to the unit of Hertz.

and for reference, 1 Hertz = 6.28 rad/s

- Or use this link: http://www.kylesconverter.com/frequency/hertz-to-radians-per-second

and calculating Angular Velocity requires the radius of the object as well, which can be calced here:

## PSI Calculation

This Calculation is to find the amount of force/pressure applied to a certain area via pounds per square inches. To find it you must follow these steps first.

- Find Force in Newtons which is mass (kg) multiply by Acceleration (m/s^2), usually that is earth's gravitational acceleration (9.807 m/s^2)
- Then convert Newtons to Pound-Force (1 N = 0.224809 lb-Force)

- Then find the area that will be effected (inches^2)
- Then take both the force and area and divide between the two

## Pressure to Energy

This calculation is to find how much pressure (N/m^2) to Energy (Joules), first you would need to do several steps first if you haven't done them already

- first, have force (newtons) and divide it by area (meters squared) to find pressure (pounds per square inch)
- You can use this website to make it easier.

- then plug it in to this calc here, to find where it converts to (N/m^2).
- 1 N/m^2 equals 1 joule

- Then find the cross section area of any target in question and multiply both to get Joules.

## Physical Force

This calc is for calcing any feats that involve physical force of various kinds, it is similar to energy attacks but instead of calcing the energy attacks themselves, calc the objects that are being attacked themselves.

- First, you must find the volume of the objects being targeted or area with depth.
- First find the radius of the targeted object or area, then find the height or depth of that target in cm^3.
- This can be found in the following for if there are craters involved.

- First find the radius of the targeted object or area, then find the height or depth of that target in cm^3.
- Then find the type of destruction value that is shown in the feat.
- This can help with finding that feat

- Now multiply both volume and destruction value together to get your results in joules.

For any feat that involves the destruction of a person (Volume), this site can help with the understanding of Weight to Volume, This page or finding the Length, Width and Height of the person.

If the target has more than one type of density, then do the same process for both substance then ad them both together.

## Lifting/Pushing/Throwing Strength

For this page is to talk about how to find the lifting strength of the character.

- First find the mass of the object being lift (kg).
- Find the gravity (or acceleration) of the location (m/s^2). For Earth it is 9.8.
- Find the height of the lifter and divide it by which ever percentage of how high they can lift the object (meters).
- Multiply all factors together.

That's it.

### Projectile Calcing

This is where we find use the lifting strength where throwing something as a projectile.

- You have to find both the velocity (m/s) and weight of object (kg)
- Then you multiply them together to get the momentum (N*s)
- Then you must find the force which is momentum divided by speed of arm throwing motion in seconds to find Force in Newtons.
- Then you will find the answer you seek.

Here is a website to help with this part.

- Finding the Ideal weight for person.
- projectile motion calculator.
- speed behind a punch around (less than 60ms)
- Gravity of Earth in layers for reference.

### Pushing/Dragging Calcing

This is where we find what the force is needed to pull or drag something on some sort of surface.

For this you would need some example for static and kinetic frictions, these are determined by what type of surfaces both ground and object they have.

- First you would need to find the coefficient of static friction and kinetic friction
- Normal Force is the mass (kg) * gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s/s) to get kg/m/s or Netwon
- Static Friction
- you need to find the budging force needed to overcome the static friction by multiplying it with the Normal Force.
- Then subtract from the external force to push or drag an object.
- Then divide by mass to get the acceleration of m/s^2 for the moment

- Kinetic Friction
- You will need to find the force of friction needed by multiplying Normal Force with kinetic friction.
- Then subtract it from the external force to push or drag.
- Then divide by mass to get the acceleration of m/s^2 to keep the object in motion.

- Then you would need to find the mass of something (kg) and the rate of acceleration (m/s^2) to multiple together to get the force needed.

## Shearing Force

For this one, it is to find how much power it used to tear apart the target, for that you must find a few of the following:

- find the given surface area (m^2) of the target or area you find.
- then you must find the yield tensile strength which the target’s material is made out of (MPa) of the most common material.
- Then apply the two into this equation: (0.6)(MPax10^6 N/m^2)(m^2)
- after that you must find the work which is to multiple the force above with the distance (m) of the area of the target it effects.