This page talks about the values you can use to find for each calc.
|Material||Denisty in kg/m^3|
|Air (Sea Level, 15 C)||1.225|
Here are a more detailed list of materials:
Periodic Table Densities
Here is other Densities for other materials and substances:
- Water 1 g/m³ (salt water is 1.02 g/m^3)
- Fire .3 kg/cm^3
- Air/Atmospheric 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level
- Concrete-gravel Stone 2.0–2.6 g/cm3 (stone density varies depending on type)
- Wood (oak) 0.6-0.9 kg/m3
- Concrete 2400 kg/m^3
- Magma 2480 kg/m^3
- Neon 0.9002 g/L
There is some websites with other materials.
- Just to let people know that cc = cm^3
- fictional elements unless have explicit chemical/physical components information cannot have an assumed density or stated to be indestructible just because it says, it must still be reviewed to see where it stacks.
Different types of clouds have a characteristic thickness to them. The thickness is the distance from the lower border to the upper border of the clouds. If clouds can't be directly scaled this is usually the only way to figure out the height to use for the calculation of the affected cloud volume.
|Cloud Type||Description||Characteristic Thickness||Appearance|
|cirrus||Generally characterized by thin, wispy strands. They are usually white or light gray in colour. Since cirrus clouds arrive in advance of the frontal system or tropical cyclone, it indicates that weather conditions may soon deteriorate. While it indicates the arrival of rain, cirrus clouds only produce fall streaks (falling ice crystals that evaporate before landing on the ground).||100m to 8000m, with 1500m on average.|
|stratus||Low-level clouds characterized by horizontal layering with a uniform base. They vary from dark gray to nearly white. Stratus clouds may produce a light drizzle or a small amount of snow. These clouds are essentially above-ground fog formed either through the lifting of morning fog or through cold air moving at low altitudes over a region.||Less than 1000 meters|
|cumulus||Clouds which have flat bases and are often described as "puffy", "cotton-like" or "fluffy" in appearance. Cumulus clouds are often precursors of other types of clouds, such as cumulonimbus. Normally, cumulus clouds produce little or no precipitation.||600m to 2000m|
|stratocumulus||Clouds characterized by large dark, rounded masses, usually in groups, lines, or waves. They look much like cumulus clouds, except lumped together and bigger.||Less than 1000 meters, of the order of 100m|
|Nimbostratus||A cloud with a diffuse cloud base. Although usually dark at its base, it often appears illuminated from within to a surface observer. Typical rain clouds.||2000m to 4000m|
|cumulonimbus||Dense, towering vertical clouds. They are the clouds that usually accompany heavy rain, storms and thunderstorms.||Usually between 8000m to 11800m. Sometimes as few as 2000m in polar air.|
What is real lightning?
Most electricity in fiction is not as fast as real lightning. Often it is supernatural in nature, and is possibly not even electricity. Therefore lightning is only accepted as such under certain circumstances.
- Cloud-to-ground lightning is considered to be real lightning, as long there is nothing suggesting otherwise.
- For any lightning that isn't cloud-to-ground both of the following conditions have to be met:
- It is only considered as real lightning if it has demonstrated at a minimum a few properties that real lightning has. Some examples are: making muscles of affected beings contract, having an (electro)magnetic field, being shown to actually move with a speed similar to lightning, flowing through conducting materials, the character being able to manipulate real electricity or electromagnetism in general, generating ozone or causing electrolysis.
- The speed of real electricity can change due to a variety of factors, but for practical purposes, concerning attacks that are electricity-based, if they display power comparable to that of natural lightning, they should be considered to move at a comparable speed. It is required to show that the electricity carries an energy of at least 5 billion Joules or a voltage of around 100 million Volts in order to qualify.
The speed of lightning can vary mostly in the range of 1.0-14×105 m/s. For the purpose of calculating speed feats we use the average lightning speed of 4.4×105 m/s (Mach 1294), which is suggested by this study. Similar studies have found average speeds within the same order of magnitude, albeit lower. 
The clouds that usually cause thunderstorms build about 200m to 4000m above the ground. In this wiki, 2000m is the standard assumption.
The calculation for the speed a character moves at when dodging/reacting to lightning is a very simple one.
The formula is:
Based on the formula and scientific basis we can now make an estimation on which speed characters, that dodged cloud-to-ground lightning, should be placed at. We do that by inserting the distance values and the speed values into the formula. For the distance the character moved we will assume one meter, as that seems reasonable. Should a character appear to have moved a lot more or a lot less than this, a separate calculation has to be made using the formula above.
|Speed\Distance||Low-End (4000m)||Average (2100 m)||High-End (200m)|
|Average (4.4×105 m/s)|
In order to determine the cloud mass from its volume one simply has to multiply it with the clouds density. However, what a clouds density is can be defined in two different ways
- The density of the water in the cloud.
- The density of the water and air in the cloud together.
Which to use depends on which way the cloud was affected. Chemical changes, like vaporization or condensation of water use the first density, while movement changes like the creation of instabilities or changing the clouds position or shape use the second density.
The density of the water and air in the cloud together is approximately 1.003 kg/m3.
The density of just the water in the cloud is the liquid water content. The liquid water content depends on the cloud type. Following values can be used as orientation:
|Cloud Type||Liquid Water Content (g/m3)|
|stratus||0.25 to 0.3|
|cumulus||0.25 to 0.3|
|cumulonimbus||1 to 3|
Earthquake Power Chart
This is a basic chart that yields the output of Earthquakes from Magnitude 1 to 10.5
|Magnitude 1||1.995262e+6||0.000476879063098 Tons||Wall level|
|Magnitude 1.5||1.122018e+7||0.0026816873805 Tons||Wall level+|
|Magnitude 2||6.309573e+7||0.0150802413958 Tons||Room level|
|Magnitude 2.5||3.548134e+8||0.0848024378585 Tons||Small Building level+|
|Magnitude 3||1.995262e+9||0.476879063098 Tons||Building level|
|Magnitude 3.5||1.122018e+10||2.6816873805 Tons||Large Building level|
|Magnitude 4||6.309573e+10||15.0802413958 Tons||City Block level|
|Magnitude 4.5||3.548134e+11||84.8024378585 Tons||City Block level+|
|Magnitude 5||1.995262e+12||476.879063098 Tons||Multi-City Block level|
|Magnitude 5.5||1.122018e+13||2.6816873805 Kilotons||Small Town level|
|Magnitude 6||6.309573e+13||15.0802413958 Kilotons||Town level|
|Magnitude 6.5||3.548134e+14||84.8024378585 Kilotons||Town level+|
|Magnitude 7||1.995262e+15||476.879063098 Kilotons||Large Town level|
|Magnitude 7.5||1.122018e+16||2.6816873805 Megatons||Small City level|
|Magnitude 8||6.309573e+16||15.0802413958 Megatons||City level|
|Magnitude 8.5||3.548134e+17||84.8024378585 Megatons||City level+|
|Magnitude 9||1.995262e+18||476.879063098 Megatons||Mountain level|
|Magnitude 9.5||1.122018e+19||2.6816873805 Gigatons||Small Island level|
|Magnitude 10||6.309573e+19||15.0802413958 Gigatons||Island level|
|Magnitude 10.5||3.548134e+20||84.8024378585 Gigatons||Island level+|
Total Seismic Energy
|Magnitude 1||3.899420e+10||9.3198374761 Tons||Large Building level+|
|Magnitude 1.5||2.192805e+11||52.4092973231 Tons||City Block level+|
|Magnitude 2||1.233105e+12||294.71916826 Tons||Multi-City Block level|
|Magnitude 2.5||6.934258e+12||1.65732743786 Kilotons||Small Town level|
|Magnitude 3||3.899420e+13||9.3198374761 Kilotons||Town level|
|Magnitude 3.5||2.192805e+14||52.4092973231 Kilotons||Town level+|
|Magnitude 4||1.233105e+15||294.71916826 Kilotons||Large Town level|
|Magnitude 4.5||6.934258e+15||1.65732743786 Megatons||Small City level|
|Magnitude 5||3.899420e+16||9.3198374761 Megatons||City level|
|Magnitude 5.5||2.192805e+17||52.4092973231 Megatons||City level+|
|Magnitude 6||1.233105e+18||294.71916826 Megatons||Mountain level|
|Magnitude 6.5||6.934258e+18||1.65732743786 Gigatons||Small Island level|
|Magnitude 7||3.899420e+19||9.3198374761 Gigatons||Island level|
|Magnitude 7.5||2.192805e+20||52.4092973231 gigatons||Island level+|
|Magnitude 8||1.233105e+21||294.71916826 Gigatons||Large Island level|
|Magnitude 8.5||6.934258e+21||1.65732743786 teratons||Small Country level|
|Magnitude 9||3.899420e+22||9.3198374761 Teratons||Country level|
|Magnitude 9.5||2.192805e+23||52.4092973231 Teratons||Country level+|
|Magnitude 10||1.233105e+24||294.71916826 Teratons||Large Country level|
|Magnitude 10.5||6.934258e+24||1.65732743786 Petatons||Continent level+|
- Room level (4.8 - 17.7 m) = The size of a Tennis court, the size of a Volleyball court, the area of a typical three-bedroom house
- Building level (17.7 - 35.3 m) = The surface of a Olympic-size swimming pool
- Large Building level (35.3 - 62.3 m) = An American football field area, a Soccer field area, a Baseball field area (including outfield), Hagia Sophia
- City Block level (62.3 - 130 m) = A cricket field area, a common city block from Manhattan, the Pyramid of the Sun area
- Multi City Block level (130 - 280 m) = Great Pyramid of Giza area (min)
- Small Town level (280 - 500 m) = The Vatican City, The Pentagon
- Town level (0.5 - 1.3 km) = The City of London
- Large Town level (1.3 - 2.7 km) = The Smallest Oceania islands (min), Machu Picchu
- Small City level (2.7 - 5 km) = Nauru (min), Manhattan Island
- City level ( 5 - 12.5 km) = Teotihucan (min), Taipei City, Disney World, Paris (inner city), Washington D.C., Hollywood, Brooklyn
- Mountain level (12.5 - 28 km) = Andorra (min), Los Angeles, Hong Kong, Tokyo
- Large Mountain level (28 - 45.5 km) = Luxembourg (min), Trinidad Island
- Island level (45.5 - 130 km) = Jamaica, Belgium, Puerto Rico, Israel, Netherland, Yellowstone National Park
- Large Island level (130 - 280 km) = Austria, South Korea, North Korea, Greece, Great Britain, Cuba, Benelux
- Small Country level (280 - 535.6 km) = Philippines, Japan, Spain, Turkey, Germany, France
- Country level (535.6 - 1300 km) = Egypt, Alaska State, Mexico, Greenland, Argentina, India
- Large Country level (1300 - 2555 km) = Australia, Brazil, China, Unites States of America, Antarctica, the area of Pluto, Russia, Canada, South America, Europe
- Continent level (2555 - 4600 km) = Africa, the area of the Moon, The Americas, Asia
- Multi-Continent level (4600 - 86614.1 km) = The Area of Mars, the area of Earth, the area of Neptune